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• US has failed to ratify the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)
• CRC 2008: US is one of the world’s largest producers, distributors and consumers of child pornography.
• US was one of the only two States that have failed to ratify the Convention on the rights of the child.
• Since June 2001, more than 334 individuals in the United States have killed by police tasers.
• UN report on extreme poverty 2006: there is qualitative and anecdotal evidence pointing to a rise in extreme poverty in US.
• US failed to close the illegal secret detention centers and prisons against the UN urging call.
A General View of Human Rights Situation in US
What is now being monitored during the UPR process by the international organizations concerns a small portion of human rights behavior of the government of the United States.
And what is even more important is the long standing policy of the US within the country and at the international level in furtherance of an unjust and repressive economic and monetary agenda which, as a result, lead to the grave violation of economic and social rights and the right to development of many nations worldwide.
Economic, trade and monetary policies within the Bretton Wood institutions, WTO and other relevant organizations pursued by the US and some major European countries have contributed to further widening of the gap between the North and the South.
Consequently, these policies have undermined the right to development of developing countries which, in turn, aggravated already dire economic situations, chronic poverty and underdevelopment in the South. The negative pattern of behavior of some Trans National Corporations all over the world owned by the American companies and supported by the US government has resulted in further deterioration in the enjoyment of economic and social rights by millions around the world.
Furthermore, at the international political level, the government of the US has always been the ardent supporter of the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, gravely violating the right to self-determination of the Palestinians people.
By supporting the Israeli state terrorism, the government of the US has contributed to the massive violation of the right to life, right to property and the right not to be tortured of the Palestinian and other Arab people in the region.
Even worse, the United States have vetoed the resolutions and decisions of the Security Council drafted in favor of the Palestinian people and cast negative vote to the resolutions issued by the Commission on Human Rights, the predecessor of the Human Rights Council.
Moreover the occupation of Iraq within a unilateral decision bypassing the Security Council of the United Nations and its member states in which thousands of innocent people including women and children have been massacred by the US troops and terrorist organizations constitute grave breach of international law and gross violation of human rights of individuals and peoples.
Turning to the present report, it is notable that its content is not an exhaustive list of violation of human rights by the US. Rather the report describes several aspects of only a small portion of the systematic violations of human rights by the government of the US being recorded as well as reported by international organizations and relevant organs, non-governmental organizations and national institutions.
The report seeks to present an impartial view concerning the violations being perpetrated by the USA government and are frequently the cause for great concerns within the international community represented by the United Nation Agencies, NGO’s and other institutions of civil society.
It is worth mentioning that the USA government has even failed to meet its international commitments under the international instruments which has led the respected international treaty bodies to voice their grave concerns on human rights violations.
Secret detention centers in various parts of the world run by the United States including in some European countries has drawn great deal of attention and became the subject of close monitoring and inquiries at the international, regional and national level.
Undoubtedly, states have the obligation to safeguard the human rights of the people against terrorists their jurisdiction. However, states’ responses to terrorism must conform to their obligations under international human rights law. This includes an obligation on all states to ensure that the absolute prohibition against torture is upheld and more importantly take action to prevent torture, including through the use of legal and practical safeguards such as regular and independent monitoring of detention centers.
In this regard, the world community has voiced its strong objection to the United States for committing torture and ill-treatment; the use of torture as a means to extract statements and confessions.
It is noteworthy that the wide range of international human rights mechanisms including special procedures of the Human Rights Council particularly the reports of the Special Rapporteur on torture , the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances , and the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention   address individually and collectively issues related to violation of human rights by the US.
It is the hope of the authors of the present report that it will give more impetus to the activity of all human rights inter governmental and non governmental organizations to continue expressing their concerns within a more solid and effectual means with the view to help realize the protection and promotion of human rights of all individuals victims of the violation of human rights by the government of the United States.
Section I:
US torture camps
۱٫ Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse
Since late April 2004, when the first photographs appeared of U.S. military personnel humiliating, torturing, and otherwise mistreating detainees at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq, the government of the United States of America has repeatedly sought to portray the abuse as an isolated incident, the work of a few “bad apples” acting without orders….In fact, the only exceptional aspect of the abuse at Abu Ghraib may have been that it was photographed.   But in fact this pattern of abuse did not result from the acts of individual soldiers who broke the rules. It resulted from decisions made by the Bush administration to bend, ignore, or cast rules aside. Administration policies created the climate for Abu Ghraib in three fundamental ways of circumvention of international law, employment of coercive methods of interrogation and “see no evil, hear no evil” approach of Bush administration .
Here, the report seeks to give more focus to certain aspects of the US human rights violations in Abu Ghraib.
Violation of international law
Despite the fact that the United States has ratified the UN’s Convention Against Torture and the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions, and that the Government of the United States has recognized that the  said treaties are binding in the war for the liberation of Iraq” , it is observed that  the Bush Administration claims the prisoners taken in Abu Ghraib did not qualify as prisoners of war under the international law.
Nonetheless, in response, some legal experts have expressed that the United States could be obligated to try some of its soldiers for war crimes and under the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions, prisoners of war and civilians detained in a war may not be treated in a degrading manner, and violation of that section is a “grave breach”.
In this regard, Human Rights Watch organization has reported that the Bush administration effectively sought to re-write the Geneva Conventions of 1949 to eviscerate many of their most important protections.
These include the rights of all detainees in an armed conflict to be free from humiliating and degrading treatment, as well as from torture and other forms of coercive interrogation;
moreover, the Pentagon and the Justice Department developed the breathtaking legal argument that the president, as commander-in-chief of the armed forces, was not bound by the U.S. or international laws prohibiting torture when acting to protect national security, and that such laws might even be unconstitutional if they hampered the war on terror.
Human rights violations in Abu Ghraib
The Convention Against Torture defines torture as follows:
“Any act by which severe pain or suffering , whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him …, information or a confession, punishing him for an act he has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him”.
In this regard, concerning violation of the said convention by the US government,  History News Network has reported that, abuses of detainees in Abu Ghraib include beatings, burns, shocks, bodily suspensions, asphyxia, threats against detainees and their relatives, sexual humiliation, isolation, prolonged hooding and shackling, and exposure to heat, cold, and loud noise.
Furthermore, these include deprivation of sleep, food, clothing, and material for personal hygiene and denigration of Islam. Moreover, 34 abuses of women detainees are less well documented but include credible allegations of sexual humiliation and rape.
In this regard, in mid October 2003, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) visited persons deprived of their liberty undergoing interrogation by military intelligence officers in Unit 1A, the “Isolation section” of “Abu Ghraib” Correctional Facility. Most of these persons deprived of their liberty had been arrested in early October.
The ICRC documented other forms of ill-treatment, usually combined with those described above, including threats, insults, verbal violence, sleep deprivation caused by the playing of loud music or constant light in cells devoid of windows, tight handcuffing with flexi-cuffs causing lesions and wounds around the wrists.
Consequently, the International Committee of the Red Cross medical delegate examined persons deprived of their liberty presenting signs of concentration difficulties, memory problems, verbal expression difficulties, incoherent speech, acute anxiety reactions, abnormal behavior and suicidal tendencies.
Thus it was confirmed that these symptoms appeared to have been caused by the methods and duration of interrogation….
Medical shortcoming and abuses
Medical shortcomings and abuses in Abu Ghraib which is synonymous with torture is another dimension of the violation of human rights of the prisoners.
As uncovered by legal scholars M. Gregg Bloche and Jonathan Marks, who conducted an inquiry published by the New England Journal of Medicine, not only were some military doctors at Abu Ghraib enlisted to help inflict distress on the prisoners, but also the scarcity of basic medical care was at times so severe that it created another form of torture.
It is noted as well that there was also medical disarray at the prison: amputations performed by non-doctors and chest tubes recycled from the dead to the living.
The care at Abu Ghraib has often been at the other end of the scale of humane treatment. Although the prison was at times crowded with as many as 7,000 detainees, no U.S. doctor was in residence for most of 2003.
Military officials say a few Iraqi doctors saw to minor illnesses but not major traumas. It is surprising to note that American Civil Liberties Union has cited that an Army medic based at Abu Ghraib spoke of examining 800 to 900 detainees daily as they were admitted i.e. even if he worked  ۱۲-hour  a day, that gave him less than a minute for each exam[ ] [ ].
As it is noticed the American pattern of behavior toward prisoners in Abu Ghraib are clear indication of gross and systematic violation of international human rights.
The brutal and inhuman treatment of prisoners under the pretext of war on terrorism has forced the international community to cease their silence and condemn the USA.
Hence ,the United Nations  Human Rights machinery and its numerous  mechanisms, intergovernmental organizations and relevant NGOs should keep, as a result of their findings, the human rights behavior of the government of the United States under constant monitoring in order to help protect the rights of American citizens and non- citizens around the world.
۲٫ Bagram torture and prisoner abuse
Since the fall of the Taliban government in Afghanistan, U.S.-led forces have arrested and detained thousands of Afghans and other nationals throughout Afghanistan.
The main U.S. detention facility in Afghanistan is at the Bagram airbase, north of Kabul. The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is also holding an unknown number of detainees, both at Bagram airbase and at other locations in Afghanistan, including in Kabul.
There are many different reports on the violation of human rights by the U.S military and intelligence personnel in Afghanistan.
Here, very briefly some aspects of Bagram prison are depicted as follows:
Catastrophic conditions in Bagram
According to Human Rights Watch, the U.S military and intelligence personnel in Afghanistan employ an interrogation system that includes the use of sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, and forcing detainees to sit or stand in painful positions for extended period of time.
In this regard, the United States of America has failed to adequately address charges of mistreatment of detainees by U.S. military and intelligence personnel in Afghanistan. Furthermore, many cases of mistreatment inter alia exposure to freezing temperatures, and severe beatings, being stripped of their clothing and photographed while naked have been observed as well.
Some of these abusive practices during interrogation were similar to those afterward reported in Iraq. These allegations are consistent with other allegations received by the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission,    The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, and numerous international journalistic reports .
Based on the report of Washington Post , persons being held in the CIA interrogation center at Bagram airbase who refused to cooperate were sometimes kept standing or kneeling for hours in black hoods or spray-painted goggles, according to intelligence specialists familiar with CIA interrogation methods and at times they were held in awkward, painful positions and deprived of sleep with a 24-hour bombardment of lights—subject to what are known as ‘stress and duress’ techniques .
The legal aspects
The detention of persons captured or arrested within the context of the “global war on terror” must take place within a clear and appropriate legal framework and the relevant procedural safeguards.
Any person deprived of liberty cannot be detained and interrogated outside of an appropriate legal framework. Nonetheless, people held in connection with armed conflicts such as in Afghanistan fall under the regime of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and should be treated accordingly .
Moreover, those persons detained outside of a situation of armed conflict have rights enshrined in a number of other bodies of law, such as international human rights law and relevant provisions of domestic law.
The ICRC has adopted a case-by-case approach to qualifying situations arising from the “global war on terror” as an armed conflict or not and believes that the status of detainees should be determined based on the relevant rules.
There are currently two broad strands of legal thinking: according to one, detainees in the “global war on terror” are all criminal suspects and should be treated as such and according to the other, they are all prisoners of war and should be treated as such.
The administration chose Guantánamo in the first place because it thought it was a law-free zone. Now that the Supreme Court has said that the administration is actually accountable to legal limits at Guantánamo, it is turning to other avenues to avoid accountability.
It is also noticed by one member of the 377th military police company that prisoners in Afghanistan being labeled as “enemy combatants” and were not subject to the Geneva Conventions had contributed to the abuse.
UN against US prisoner abuse
The Human Rights Committee has noted with concern shortcomings concerning the independence, impartiality and effectiveness of investigations into allegations of torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment inflicted by the United States military and non-military personnel or contract employees, in detention facilities in Guantanamo Bay, Afghanistan, Iraq, and other overseas locations, and to alleged cases of suspicious death in custody in any of these locations.
The Committee regrets that the United States of America did not provide sufficient information regarding the prosecutions launched, sentences and reparation granted to the victims.
Also the United States of America should conduct prompt and independent investigations into all allegations concerning suspicious deaths, torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment inflicted by its personnel (including commanders) as well as contract employees. The United States of America should ensure that those responsible are prosecuted and punished in accordance with the gravity of the crime;
Furthermore, the Committee wishes to be informed about the measures taken by the United States of America to ensure the respect of the right to reparation for the victims  and also the Committee is further concerned that detention in other locations, such as Afghanistan and Iraq, is reviewed by mechanisms providing even fewer guarantee.
Recommendations of the Committee Against Torture
The Committee Against Torture (CAT) voiced its concerned upon reliable reports of acts of torture or cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment committed by certain members of the United States of America’s military or civilian personnel in Afghanistan and Iraq.
It is also concerned that the investigation and prosecution of many of these cases, including some resulting in the death of detainees, have led to lenient sentences, including of an administrative nature or less than one US imprisonment.
Clearly, the United States of America has explicitly and systematically violated international standards regarding human treatment of prisoners which led to the objection raised by international organizations inter alia Human Rights Committee and Committee Against Torture.
۳٫ Guantánamo Bay isolated torture camp
Since 2002 Guantánamo Bay Camp  has served as a military prison and interrogation camp and ultimately held more than 775 detainees from forty –four countries and mostly ,the people suspected by the U.S. government of being al-Qaeda and Taliban operatives ;
moreover, the use of Guantánamo Bay as a military prison has drawn fire from human rights organizations and other critics, who cite reports that detainees have been tortured or otherwise poorly treated.
Camp’s conditions
Physical and mental conditions for detainees at Guantanamo do not meet basic rules and standards of international human rights and prisoners are held in small mesh-sided cells with little privacy, and lights are kept on day and night.
Detainees are kept in isolation most of the day, are blindfolded when moving into Camp Delta and from place to place within the camp, and forbidden to talk in groups of more than three. There have been serious allegations of torture, including sleep deprivation, the use of so-called truth drugs, beatings, locking in confined and cold cells, and being forced to maintain uncomfortable postures.
Based on court filings made public in January 2007, FBI agents reported that detainees at Guantanamo Bay were chained in a fetal position to the floor for at least 18 hours, urinating and defecating on themselves; subjected to extremes of temperature; gagged with duct tape; held in stress positions while shackled; and subjected to loud music and flashing lights.
Besides that forced feeding accusations by hunger-striking detainees began around the beginning of Autumn, 2005 and detainees said large feeding tubes were forcibly shoved up their noses and down into their stomachs, with guards using the same tubes from one patient to another.
The detainees say no sedatives were provided during these procedures, which they allege took place in front of U.S. physicians, including the head of the prison hospital.
Moreover, from 2002 to 2006 there have been several hunger strikes at Guantánamo Bay, with up to 200 participants according to some reports. Numerous participants were being force-fed through a feeding tube when their health and lives became in danger.
Violation of international law
Ignoring of applying the Geneva Conventions broadly, U.S. then Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld labeled the first detainees to arrive at Guantánamo on January 11, 2002 as “unlawful combatants,” automatically denying them possible status as prisoners of war (POWs).
On February 7, 2002, in the face of growing international criticism, US then president announced that the U.S. government would apply the “principles of the Third Geneva Convention” to captured members of the Taliban, but would not consider any of them to be POWs because, in the U.S. view, they did not meet the requirements of an armed force under that Convention.
UN for closure of Guantanamo
Since January 2002, the five mandate holders of special procedures of the Commission on Human Rights have been following the situation of detainees held at the United States Naval Base at Guantánamo Bay. In June 2004, they decided to continue this task as a group because the situation falls under the scope of each of the mandates. The mandate holders considered that they can better discharge their reporting obligations to the Commission by submitting one joint report on this subject rather than five individual reports.
In the absence of assurances from the Government that it would comply with the terms of reference, the mandate holders decided on 18 November 2005 to cancel the visit. Moreover, the report is therefore based on the replies of the Government to a questionnaire concerning detention at Guantánamo Bay submitted by the mandate holders, interviews conducted by the mandate holders with former detainees currently residing or detained in France, Spain and the United Kingdom and responses from lawyers acting on behalf of some Guantánamo Bay detainees to questionnaires submitted by the mandate holders.
Finally, the report ends by the following Conclusions and Recommendations:
A.Conclusions
• The executive branch of the United States Government operates as judge, prosecutor and defense counsel of the Guantánamo Bay detainees: this constitutes serious violations of various guarantees of the right to a fair trial before an independent tribunal as provided for by article 14 of the ICCPR.
• Attempts by the United States Administration to redefine “torture” in the framework of the struggle against terrorism in order to allow certain interrogation techniques that would not be permitted under the internationally accepted definition of torture are of utmost concern….
• The interrogation techniques authorized by the Department of Defense, particularly if used simultaneously, amount to degrading treatment in violation of article 7 of ICCPR and article 16 of the Convention against Torture….
• The excessive violence used in many cases during transportation, in operations by the Initial Reaction Forces and force-feeding of detainees on hunger strike must be assessed as amounting to torture as defined in article 1 of the Convention against Torture.
• The practice of rendition of persons to countries where there is a substantial risk of torture… is contrary to article 3 of the Convention against Torture and Article 7 of ICCPR.
• The lack of any impartial investigation into allegations of torture and ill-treatment and the resulting impunity of the perpetrators amount to a violation of articles 12 and 13 of the Convention against Torture.
• There are reliable indications that, in different circumstances, persons detained in the Guantánamo Bay detention facilities have been victims of violations of the right to freedom of religion or belief, contrary to article 18 of ICCPR and the 1981 Declaration….
• The treatment of the detainees and the conditions of their confinement has led to prolonged hunger strikes. The force-feeding of competent detainees violates the right to health as well as the ethical duties of any health professionals who may be involved.
Result:
The United States Government should close the Guantánamo Bay detention facilities without further delay.
Section II:
Islamophobia in the United States
Islamophobia is the most outstanding feature of the U.S domestic and foreign policy worldwide. The U.S occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan and NATO attacks in those countries especially against innocent and defendless Muslim population, hostility and injustice towards Palestinian people and  branding the Palestinian freedom fighters as terrorists, denouncing Muslims and Arabs and promoting the culture of hatred against Islam represent some manifestations of Islamophobia  pursued by the government of the United States. The pursuance of Islamophobia as a pattern in domestic and foreign policy by the U.S government has contributed immensely to rapid growth of Islamophobic attitudes among Christian and Jewish religious and secular extremists which, in turn led to the emergence of symptoms of bias against Muslims and spread of hate speech and different forms of defamation against Islam and even Christianity and Judaism. Provoked and nurtured by the United States government Islamophobic policies, the “Corporate Media” has, for USears, engaged in demonizing Islamic religion and spreading hatred against Muslims around the world. Although some Media in the western and non-western communities consider themselves as independent in expressing their worldview and different opinions about Muslims, however it is frequently and widely accepted by the commentators that the global Anti- Islamic climate created in the aftermath of 9/11 by the government of the United States has brought about conducive conditions for a world wide organized and systematic Islamophobia and defamation of Islam within the Media. In addition, some circles within film industries in the west particularly in the United States has enhanced and spread anti Arab and anti Muslim sentiments around the globe. It is under these circumstances that Islamophobia grows within the common people in some western societies and strengthened by some laws promoting “restrictive measures” against Muslims.
In the aftermath of September 11, 2001 attacks, Muslims in the United States of America became victims of a severe wave of backlash violence, and crimes such as murder, beatings, arson, unreasonable arrest, harassment, attacks on mosques, shootings, vehicular assaults and verbal threats. To world dismay, violence was directed at people shared or were perceived as sharing the national background or religion of the hijackers and Al-Qaeda members who deemed responsible for attacking the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. It should be mentioned as well that violence against Arabs and Muslims, in the United States society, has not been unprecedented, USet the hate crimes that followed the September 11 attacks were unique in their severity and extent.
Hatred acts against Muslims & Mosques
Quran burning
In the aftermath of September 11, burning of the holy Quran comes of particular sensitivity. The U.S. military confirmed five cases of U.S. personnel mishandling the Muslim holy book at the prison at Guantanamo Bay, acknowledging that soldiers and interrogators exerted certain discourteous manner against holy Quran which readers for further study are duly referred to the provided source. However, inside the country various cases of holy Quran burning have been reported too.[ ] [ ] The most recent incident was the call from a priest to celebrate “Burning Quran day” on the anniversary of the 9/11.
Assault on Islam, Muslims and Mosques
Baptist Press reports that Daniel Scot from Brisbane Assemblies of God ministers, received the Kairos Journal Award for his refusal to “compromise truth for fear of jail”      (Anti Islamic believes), the award is given annually to individuals who demonstrate faithfulness to Scripture and pastoral courage; on the other hand, it also honors those who respond to what the journal calls a ‘kairos moment’ – a moment that calls for timely Christian action. In this regard, it is also cited that Americans view their Muslim neighbors as an alien outside the limits of American life and history. While other minorities such as African-Americans, Hispanics and native Americans are considered as people living within the boundaries of the present United States geographical boundaries since the earliest days of the nation USet Muslims are perceived to have had no part in the American experience. Moreover, there are numerous cases reported by the media that indicate, violation against mosques has become routine in the USA society in the aftermath of September11, inter alia vandalizing of a Detroit located mosque in January 2007 , fire at the National Islamic Association mosque in Newark , vandalism targeted an Islamic school at Kenner and the nearby home of a Pakistani man , shots fired into Maryland Mosque in April2006, vandalism of Ahlul-Beyt Mosque of Pomona and firing mosque of Adelantoin to mention a few.
Section III:
Police brutality
Police abuse remains one of the most serious and divisive human rights violations in the United States.  About 400 innocent people shot and killed by the police each USear in the United States. The excessive use of force by police officers, including unjustified shootings, severe beatings and rough treatment persists because overwhelming barriers to accountability has made it possible for US officers who commit human rights violations to escape due punishment and often to repeat their offenses. In this regard, even the most flagrant violations of justice go unpunished. Regrettably, in the lesser cases, the policemen are actually rewarded for their evil!
To shed more light on the issue some of the aspects of US police brutalities are presented as follows:
The Taser related deaths pass the 150 mark
With regard to police brutality, in the US 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively 3, 13, 17, 48and 61 Taser related deaths have been recorded. Since June 2001,152 people died in the USA after being shocked by a taser. It is note worthy citing that, Amnesty International has already released a report (in November 2004) calling for a suspension on the use and transfer of these weapons. In fact Amnesty International raised its concerns that the number of taser-related deaths had been rising each USear in the Unites states of America. Moreover, of the 152 taser related deaths documented by Amnesty International, most of those who died in custody were unarmed and were not posing a serious threat to police officers or members of the public. The said report reveals that they were generally subjected to repeated or prolonged shocks; the suspects were suffering from health problems, such as heart conditions or mental illnesses, or were under the influence of drugs; adding that, use of the taser was often accompanied by the use of restraints and/or chemical incapacitate sprays.
UN against US police brutality
With regard to the US police brutality, many objections have been voiced inter alia UN Human Rights Committee which can be referred to as follows:
Concerning racial profiling and police abuse, according to figures published by the United States Bureau of Justice in April 2005, 11.4 percent of Hispanics and 12.4 percent of African American respondents to a survey reported a search during a traffic stop, compared with only 3.5 percent of whites.  While only 1.1 percent of whites had reported the use or threat of use of force following contact with police, however figures for African-Americans was 3.5 percent and for Hispanics 2.5  percent. Moreover, fourteen per cent of persons who had experienced the use of force by the police reported that they had sustained injuries as a result, and less than 20 per cent of those who considered that the police had acted improperly had filed a complaint or lawsuit against the authorities.
Regrettably, it should be mentioned that the US police brutality and excessive use of force by its law enforcement officials constitute constant and systematic trend .In this regard, the reports of Human Rights Committee about violations of the provisions of the Covenant of the Civil and Political Rights ( CCPR) along side other numerous documents presented by international organizations  inter alia Amnesty International indicates willful negligence of the United States government officials which requires urgent attention .
Section IV:
Execution of mentally ill people
Execution of mentally ill people in the USA is one of the main issues under the scrutiny and criticisms of national and international human rights advocates. Since 1977 till the end of December 2005, Amnesty International has recorded that more than 1000 men and women had been put to death in the United States of America. Dozens of these people had histories of serious mental impairment, either from before the crimes for which they were sentenced to death, or at the time of their execution. Moreover, some suffered either from mental retardation or mental illness or diagnosed with both.
General trend
Amnesty International has reported that by the end of December 2005, more than 1,000 men and women had been put to death in the United States of America (since executions resumed there in 1977) of whom 100 has had mental illness.
Section V:
Violation of human rights in prisons
According to statistics released by the Federal Bureau of Justice Statistics (Prisoners in 2005), the number of US residents behind bars has now reached more than 2.3 million and the rate of incarceration has risen to 491 sentenced inmates per 100,000 US residents, up from 411 a decade ago. Moreover, four states – Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi and Oklahoma – have incarceration rates of more than 750 per 100,000, with Louisiana soaring above all other states with the astonishing rate of 797.
UN against bad situation of US prisons
The Human Rights Committee as the treaty body of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, in its different reports has criticized the existing situation of the prisons in the USA. At present report we touch upon some of these considerations.
Criticism on human experiments in the US prisons:
Human Rights Committee (HRC) has noticed that the conduct of non-therapeutic research on prisoners, even with their consent, was questionable since prisoners belonged to a vulnerable category and might give their consent in the hope of some unspecified advantage in the future.  Paragraph 145 of the report of HRC seemed to indicate that all kinds of medical or pharmaceutical experimentation involving prisoners were prohibited at the federal level.  Yet the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) apparently allowed tests on prisoners.  Moreover, according to paragraph 146, HHS regulations protecting prisoners’ rights and welfare were applicable to 90 percent of federally conducted research and what about the remaining 10 percent and non-federally-conducted research.
Consideration on high number of prisoners
The HRC has found as well that the United States had incarcerated some 2,270,000 people out of a population of approximately 280 million, which was equivalent to 757 per 100,000 members of the population, a ratio that was between 500 and 1,000 percent higher than for any other developed country and it is a matter of question why such high levels of incarceration were necessary.
Criticism on deprivation of voting in the US prisons
Based on some different reports, in many states, those convicted of felony  offenses are banned from voting. These laws have a much greater effect on minorities, especially African Americans, as they are more likely to be convicted of felonies. In some United States cities, for example, half of all black men cannot vote, and in states such as Florida and Alabama, as many as a third of black men cannot vote. For this reason, the constitutionality of this practice is likely to be tested in the United States Supreme Court in due course.
Criminals could be deprived of the vote under the Covenant while they were incarcerated, but it was far from clear that a blanket prohibition on voting for convicted felons who were no longer deprived of their liberty was not a breach of article 25.
The fact that former felons were not included in the list of prohibited characteristics for discrimination in article 2 was not a cogent argument since the list omitted a very large number of categories that were nevertheless eligible for protection against discrimination.
The Human Rights Committee is concerned that about five million citizens cannot vote due to a felony conviction, and that this practice has significant racial implications.  The Human Rights Committee also notes with concern that the recommendation made in 2001 by the National Commission on Federal Election Reform that all states restore voting rights to citizens who have fully served their sentences has not been endorsed by all states.  The Committee is of the view that general deprivation of the right to vote for persons who have received a felony conviction, and in particular those who are no longer deprived of liberty, do not meet the requirements of articles 25 of 26 of the Covenant, nor serves the rehabilitation goals of article 10 (3).Moreover, the United States of America should adopt appropriate measures to ensure that states restore voting rights to citizens who have fully served their sentences and those who have been released on parole.  The Committee also recommends that the US review regulations relating to deprivation of votes for felony conviction to ensure that they always meet the reasonableness test of article 25 and should also assess the extent to which such regulations disproportionately impact on the rights of minority groups and provide the Committee with detailed information in this regard.[ ][ ]
Criticism on maximum security prisons
The Human Rights Committee has reiterated its concern that conditions in some maximum security prisons are incompatible with the obligation contained in article 10 (1) of the Covenant to treat detainees with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.  It is particularly concerned by the practice in some such institutions to hold detainees in prolonged cellular confinement, and to allow them out-of-cell recreation for only five hours per week, in general conditions of strict regimentation in a depersonalized environment.  It is also concerned that such treatment cannot be reconciled with the requirement in article 10 (3) that the penitentiary system shall comprise treatment the essential aim of which shall be the reformation and social rehabilitation of prisoners.  It also expresses concern about the reported high numbers of severely mentally ill persons in these prisons, as well as in regular in U.S. jails. Thus the United States of America should scrutinize conditions of detention in prisons, in particular in maximum security prisons, with a view to guaranteeing that persons deprived of their liberty be treated in accordance with the requirements of article 10 of the Covenant and the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners.
Criticism on the poor conditions of prisons
“Given the very poor conditions in which prisoners under sentence of death were reported to live and their invariably long stay on death row, it would be useful to know whether the reporting State planned to take measures to improve the conditions”.
The United States of America has systematically violated the international norms and standards and in this regard the USouth and adult, men and women all have suffered from the brutal inhuman treatment of the US officials toward prisoners.
Section VI:
Prisoners abuses in secret prisons
Apparently, the idea of holding terrorists outside the U.S. legal system was not under consideration before Sept. 11, 2001.Howerever, since then, the United States has established a network of secret detention facilities around the world in order to detain thousands of individuals captured in the war on terrorism. The official secrecy surrounding U.S. practices has made conditions ripe for illegality and abuse.  Moreover,  both United States citizens and foreign nationals are occasionally captured (and at times claimed to be abducted) outside of the United States and transferred to secret US administered detention facilities, sometimes being held incommunicado for periods of months or USears, a process known as extraordinary rendition .
Locations of secret prisons
It is cited  that  overseas detention facilities are known to be or to have been maintained at least in Thailand, the Philippines, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Cyprus, Cuba, Diego Garcia, and unspecified South Pacific island nation(s). In addition, individuals are suspected to be or to have been held in temporary or permanent US controlled facilities in Indonesia,  Elsalvador, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Libya, Israel, Denmark, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Hungary, Germany, and Scotland.
Extraordinary rendition
Extraordinary rendition is an American extra-judicial procedure which involves the sending of untried criminal suspects, suspected terrorists or alleged supporters of groups which the US Government considers to be terrorist organizations, to countries other than the United States for imprisonment and interrogation. Critics have accused the CIA of rendering suspects to other countries in order to avoid US laws prescribing due process and prohibiting torture, even though many of those countries have, like the US, signed or ratified the United Nations Convention Against Torture and  Critics have called this practice “torture by proxy” or “torture flights”.
UN against secret detention
The HRC against secret detention facilities
The Human Rights Committee, too, raised its concern that the United States of America has seen fit to engage in the practice of detaining people secretly and in secret places for months, without keeping the International Committee of the Red Cross informed.  In such cases, the rights of the families of the detainees are also being violated. The Human Rights Committee is also concerned that, even when such persons may have their detention acknowledged, they have been held incommunicado for months.
The CAT’s  criticism against secret detention facilities
“The Committee (CAT) is concerned by allegations that the State party has established secret detention facilities, which are not accessible to the International Committee of the Red Cross.  Detainees are allegedly deprived of fundamental legal safeguards, including an oversight mechanism in regard to their treatment and review procedures with respect to their detention.
Section VII:
Violation of women and children’s rights
Violation of women’s rights
Violations of women’s rights in the United States include discrimination based on sex, particularly employment discrimination, sexual abuse, domestic violence, battering and etc.
Women and children are also suffering a horrifying range of human rights violations in prisons across the United States of America. Besides, US police brutality toward women and children is among other challenges which women and Children in the USA are entangling.
The following is some selected accounts of violation of women’s rights in the United States requiring urgent attention by the international community.
Violence against women in prison
Rape and other human rights abuses such as Shackling of Pregnant Women and ill treatment in the US prisons have occurred partly due to the fact that guards know that they will probably never be disciplined and in many cases the suffering of women prisoners is compounded because they are too afraid to speak out for fear of reprisals. For instance, following the investigation of prisons in Michigan, the Justice Department said violations of women’s rights go unreported because of the “widespread fear of retaliation and vulnerability felt by these women” .
It is observed by Amnesty international as well that a Washington DC court described the policies and procedures of the District prison authorities for dealing with sexual misconduct as “of little value because [they] address the problems of sexual harassment of women prisoners with no staff training, inconsistent reporting practices, cursory investigations and timid sanctions.” The court said prison officials had coerced women prisoners and staff into silence, and had insulated themselves from scrutiny.
The mechanisms to prevent these human rights abuses and to provide redress are clearly inadequate. US prison standards are deficient and few states have effective, independent bodies to monitor how inmates are treated. As a result, hidden behind the prison walls, untold numbers of women continue to suffer human rights abuses at the hands of government authorities.  Moreover, Amnesty International believes that the nature and extent of sexual abuse of female inmates by male staff in US jails and prisons, and the harm that sexual abuse causes, warrants special focus on the issue. More importantly, legislation, regulations, policies and practices must reflect a commitment to protect inmates against such abuse of power.  In the same report, Amnesty International further urges federal state and local governments and authorities to take urgent action to ensure that laws, regulations, policies and practices for which they are responsible rigorously conform to international standards and respect the human rights of women deprived of their liberty.
Violation of children’s rights
Modern slavery
Other abuses that seriously threaten life in the USA include the sale of children, child prostitution, child pornography, the exploitation of child labor, the sexual mutilation of female children and other human exploitation in prostitution…. In the USA, x-rated movies, videos, magazines, internet sites, and adult entertainment enterprises constitute a multi-billion dollar annual trade.  For instance, researchers from the University of California and Berkeley’s Human Rights Center on forced labor in the United States have revealed, in disturbing detail, how individuals in communities across the country are forced through threats or violence to work in deplorable conditions for little or no pay.
Laurel Fletcher a researcher at the Human Rights Center and professor at UC Berkeley’s law school has stated that “The most shocking aspect of the said report is that modern-day slavery still exists,” Moreover, Kevin Bales, president of Free the Slaves has also expressed that “Slavery is a problem the public thinks we solved long ago, but, in fact, it’s alive and well, it has simply taken on a new form. And the form of slavery will continue to change. “It is important to remember that slavery is a crime and that criminals are always looking for new ways to exploit people” .
Abuse of children’s life right (Medical experiments)
Human experimentation involves medical tests performed on human beings. It is widely noticed that  , with these sorts of experiments, the USA has violated the right of many children inside and outside of the country.
UN criticizes
The Human Rights Committee as the treaty body of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights has criticized the existing violence and discriminations against women and children in the USA.
Concern on discrimination on the ground of sex
The Committee regrets that many federal laws that address sex-discrimination are limited in scope and restricted in implementation.  The Committee is especially concerned about the reported persistence of employment discrimination against women.
And the United States of America should take all steps necessary, including at state level, to ensure the equality of women before the law and equal protection of the law, as well as effective protection against discrimination on the ground of sex, in particular in the area of employment.
Concern on police brutality and violence against women
The Human Rights Committee has reiterated its concern about reports of police brutality and excessive use of force by law enforcement officials and is concerned about information according to which police have used tasers against unruly schoolchildren; mentally disabled or intoxicated individuals involved in disturbed but non-life-threatening behavior; elderly people; pregnant women… .
Concern on sexual abuse against women
The Human Rights Committee while welcoming the adoption of the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 regrets that the United States of America has not implemented its previous recommendation that legislation allowing male officers access to women’s quarters should be amended to provide at least that they will always be accompanied by women officers. HRC has also expressed its concern about the shackling of detained women during childbirth. Furthermore, the Committee has reiterated its recommendation that male officers should not be granted access to women’s quarters, or at least be accompanied by women officers.   The Committee also recommends the State party to prohibit the shackling of detained women during childbirth.
Concern on non-ratification of CRC
It is worth mentioning that the United States of America was one of the only two States that have failed to ratify the Convention which would be considered as an unfortunate example of exceptionalism and an impediment to the realization of universality of children rights.
References:

Human Rights Violationby The United States of America
High lights• US has failed to ratify the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)• CRC 2008: US is one of the world’s largest producers, distributors and consumers of child pornography.• US was one of the only two States that have failed to ratify the Convention on the rights of the child.• Since June 2001, more than 334 individuals in the United States have killed by police tasers.• UN report on extreme poverty 2006: there is qualitative and anecdotal evidence pointing to a rise in extreme poverty in US.• US failed to close the illegal secret detention centers and prisons against the UN urging call.

A General View of Human Rights Situation in US

What is now being monitored during the UPR process by the international organizations concerns a small portion of human rights behavior of the government of the United States. And what is even more important is the long standing policy of the US within the country and at the international level in furtherance of an unjust and repressive economic and monetary agenda which, as a result, lead to the grave violation of economic and social rights and the right to development of many nations worldwide. Economic, trade and monetary policies within the Bretton Wood institutions, WTO and other relevant organizations pursued by the US and some major European countries have contributed to further widening of the gap between the North and the South. Consequently, these policies have undermined the right to development of developing countries which, in turn, aggravated already dire economic situations, chronic poverty and underdevelopment in the South. The negative pattern of behavior of some Trans National Corporations all over the world owned by the American companies and supported by the US government has resulted in further deterioration in the enjoyment of economic and social rights by millions around the world.
Furthermore, at the international political level, the government of the US has always been the ardent supporter of the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, gravely violating the right to self-determination of the Palestinians people.
By supporting the Israeli state terrorism, the government of the US has contributed to the massive violation of the right to life, right to property and the right not to be tortured of the Palestinian and other Arab people in the region. Even worse, the United States have vetoed the resolutions and decisions of the Security Council drafted in favor of the Palestinian people and cast negative vote to the resolutions issued by the Commission on Human Rights, the predecessor of the Human Rights Council. Moreover the occupation of Iraq within a unilateral decision bypassing the Security Council of the United Nations and its member states in which thousands of innocent people including women and children have been massacred by the US troops and terrorist organizations constitute grave breach of international law and gross violation of human rights of individuals and peoples.
Turning to the present report, it is notable that its content is not an exhaustive list of violation of human rights by the US. Rather the report describes several aspects of only a small portion of the systematic violations of human rights by the government of the US being recorded as well as reported by international organizations and relevant organs, non-governmental organizations and national institutions.

The report seeks to present an impartial view concerning the violations being perpetrated by the USA government and are frequently the cause for great concerns within the international community represented by the United Nation Agencies, NGO’s and other institutions of civil society.
It is worth mentioning that the USA government has even failed to meet its international commitments under the international instruments which has led the respected international treaty bodies to voice their grave concerns on human rights violations.
Secret detention centers in various parts of the world run by the United States including in some European countries has drawn great deal of attention and became the subject of close monitoring and inquiries at the international, regional and national level.
Undoubtedly, states have the obligation to safeguard the human rights of the people against terrorists their jurisdiction. However, states’ responses to terrorism must conform to their obligations under international human rights law. This includes an obligation on all states to ensure that the absolute prohibition against torture is upheld and more importantly take action to prevent torture, including through the use of legal and practical safeguards such as regular and independent monitoring of detention centers.In this regard, the world community has voiced its strong objection to the United States for committing torture and ill-treatment; the use of torture as a means to extract statements and confessions.
It is noteworthy that the wide range of international human rights mechanisms including special procedures of the Human Rights Council particularly the reports of the Special Rapporteur on torture , the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances , and the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention   address individually and collectively issues related to violation of human rights by the US.It is the hope of the authors of the present report that it will give more impetus to the activity of all human rights inter governmental and non governmental organizations to continue expressing their concerns within a more solid and effectual means with the view to help realize the protection and promotion of human rights of all individuals victims of the violation of human rights by the government of the United States.

Section I:US torture camps1. Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse Since late April 2004, when the first photographs appeared of U.S. military personnel humiliating, torturing, and otherwise mistreating detainees at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq, the government of the United States of America has repeatedly sought to portray the abuse as an isolated incident, the work of a few “bad apples” acting without orders….In fact, the only exceptional aspect of the abuse at Abu Ghraib may have been that it was photographed.   But in fact this pattern of abuse did not result from the acts of individual soldiers who broke the rules. It resulted from decisions made by the Bush administration to bend, ignore, or cast rules aside. Administration policies created the climate for Abu Ghraib in three fundamental ways of circumvention of international law, employment of coercive methods of interrogation and “see no evil, hear no evil” approach of Bush administration . Here, the report seeks to give more focus to certain aspects of the US human rights violations in Abu Ghraib.Violation of international lawDespite the fact that the United States has ratified the UN’s Convention Against Torture and the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions, and that the Government of the United States has recognized that the  said treaties are binding in the war for the liberation of Iraq” , it is observed that  the Bush Administration claims the prisoners taken in Abu Ghraib did not qualify as prisoners of war under the international law. Nonetheless, in response, some legal experts have expressed that the United States could be obligated to try some of its soldiers for war crimes and under the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions, prisoners of war and civilians detained in a war may not be treated in a degrading manner, and violation of that section is a “grave breach”. In this regard, Human Rights Watch organization has reported that the Bush administration effectively sought to re-write the Geneva Conventions of 1949 to eviscerate many of their most important protections.
These include the rights of all detainees in an armed conflict to be free from humiliating and degrading treatment, as well as from torture and other forms of coercive interrogation; moreover, the Pentagon and the Justice Department developed the breathtaking legal argument that the president, as commander-in-chief of the armed forces, was not bound by the U.S. or international laws prohibiting torture when acting to protect national security, and that such laws might even be unconstitutional if they hampered the war on terror.   Human rights violations in Abu Ghraib The Convention Against Torture defines torture as follows:“Any act by which severe pain or suffering , whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him …, information or a confession, punishing him for an act he has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him”.  In this regard, concerning violation of the said convention by the US government,  History News Network has reported that, abuses of detainees in Abu Ghraib include beatings, burns, shocks, bodily suspensions, asphyxia, threats against detainees and their relatives, sexual humiliation, isolation, prolonged hooding and shackling, and exposure to heat, cold, and loud noise.  Furthermore, these include deprivation of sleep, food, clothing, and material for personal hygiene and denigration of Islam. Moreover, 34 abuses of women detainees are less well documented but include credible allegations of sexual humiliation and rape.In this regard, in mid October 2003, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) visited persons deprived of their liberty undergoing interrogation by military intelligence officers in Unit 1A, the “Isolation section” of “Abu Ghraib” Correctional Facility. Most of these persons deprived of their liberty had been arrested in early October. The ICRC documented other forms of ill-treatment, usually combined with those described above, including threats, insults, verbal violence, sleep deprivation caused by the playing of loud music or constant light in cells devoid of windows, tight handcuffing with flexi-cuffs causing lesions and wounds around the wrists. Consequently, the International Committee of the Red Cross medical delegate examined persons deprived of their liberty presenting signs of concentration difficulties, memory problems, verbal expression difficulties, incoherent speech, acute anxiety reactions, abnormal behavior and suicidal tendencies. Thus it was confirmed that these symptoms appeared to have been caused by the methods and duration of interrogation….

Medical shortcoming and abusesMedical shortcomings and abuses in Abu Ghraib which is synonymous with torture is another dimension of the violation of human rights of the prisoners. As uncovered by legal scholars M. Gregg Bloche and Jonathan Marks, who conducted an inquiry published by the New England Journal of Medicine, not only were some military doctors at Abu Ghraib enlisted to help inflict distress on the prisoners, but also the scarcity of basic medical care was at times so severe that it created another form of torture. It is noted as well that there was also medical disarray at the prison: amputations performed by non-doctors and chest tubes recycled from the dead to the living. The care at Abu Ghraib has often been at the other end of the scale of humane treatment. Although the prison was at times crowded with as many as 7,000 detainees, no U.S. doctor was in residence for most of 2003. Military officials say a few Iraqi doctors saw to minor illnesses but not major traumas. It is surprising to note that American Civil Liberties Union has cited that an Army medic based at Abu Ghraib spoke of examining 800 to 900 detainees daily as they were admitted i.e. even if he worked  ۱۲-hour  a day, that gave him less than a minute for each exam[ ] [ ].As it is noticed the American pattern of behavior toward prisoners in Abu Ghraib are clear indication of gross and systematic violation of international human rights. The brutal and inhuman treatment of prisoners under the pretext of war on terrorism has forced the international community to cease their silence and condemn the USA. Hence ,the United Nations  Human Rights machinery and its numerous  mechanisms, intergovernmental organizations and relevant NGOs should keep, as a result of their findings, the human rights behavior of the government of the United States under constant monitoring in order to help protect the rights of American citizens and non- citizens around the world.    ۲٫ Bagram torture and prisoner abuseSince the fall of the Taliban government in Afghanistan, U.S.-led forces have arrested and detained thousands of Afghans and other nationals throughout Afghanistan. The main U.S. detention facility in Afghanistan is at the Bagram airbase, north of Kabul. The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is also holding an unknown number of detainees, both at Bagram airbase and at other locations in Afghanistan, including in Kabul.There are many different reports on the violation of human rights by the U.S military and intelligence personnel in Afghanistan.Here, very briefly some aspects of Bagram prison are depicted as follows:
Catastrophic conditions in Bagram According to Human Rights Watch, the U.S military and intelligence personnel in Afghanistan employ an interrogation system that includes the use of sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, and forcing detainees to sit or stand in painful positions for extended period of time. In this regard, the United States of America has failed to adequately address charges of mistreatment of detainees by U.S. military and intelligence personnel in Afghanistan. Furthermore, many cases of mistreatment inter alia exposure to freezing temperatures, and severe beatings, being stripped of their clothing and photographed while naked have been observed as well. Some of these abusive practices during interrogation were similar to those afterward reported in Iraq. These allegations are consistent with other allegations received by the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission,    The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, and numerous international journalistic reports .Based on the report of Washington Post , persons being held in the CIA interrogation center at Bagram airbase who refused to cooperate were sometimes kept standing or kneeling for hours in black hoods or spray-painted goggles, according to intelligence specialists familiar with CIA interrogation methods and at times they were held in awkward, painful positions and deprived of sleep with a 24-hour bombardment of lights—subject to what are known as ‘stress and duress’ techniques .
The legal aspectsThe detention of persons captured or arrested within the context of the “global war on terror” must take place within a clear and appropriate legal framework and the relevant procedural safeguards. Any person deprived of liberty cannot be detained and interrogated outside of an appropriate legal framework. Nonetheless, people held in connection with armed conflicts such as in Afghanistan fall under the regime of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and should be treated accordingly . Moreover, those persons detained outside of a situation of armed conflict have rights enshrined in a number of other bodies of law, such as international human rights law and relevant provisions of domestic law. The ICRC has adopted a case-by-case approach to qualifying situations arising from the “global war on terror” as an armed conflict or not and believes that the status of detainees should be determined based on the relevant rules. There are currently two broad strands of legal thinking: according to one, detainees in the “global war on terror” are all criminal suspects and should be treated as such and according to the other, they are all prisoners of war and should be treated as such. The administration chose Guantánamo in the first place because it thought it was a law-free zone. Now that the Supreme Court has said that the administration is actually accountable to legal limits at Guantánamo, it is turning to other avenues to avoid accountability.It is also noticed by one member of the 377th military police company that prisoners in Afghanistan being labeled as “enemy combatants” and were not subject to the Geneva Conventions had contributed to the abuse.
UN against US prisoner abuse The Human Rights Committee has noted with concern shortcomings concerning the independence, impartiality and effectiveness of investigations into allegations of torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment inflicted by the United States military and non-military personnel or contract employees, in detention facilities in Guantanamo Bay, Afghanistan, Iraq, and other overseas locations, and to alleged cases of suspicious death in custody in any of these locations.  The Committee regrets that the United States of America did not provide sufficient information regarding the prosecutions launched, sentences and reparation granted to the victims. Also the United States of America should conduct prompt and independent investigations into all allegations concerning suspicious deaths, torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment inflicted by its personnel (including commanders) as well as contract employees. The United States of America should ensure that those responsible are prosecuted and punished in accordance with the gravity of the crime; Furthermore, the Committee wishes to be informed about the measures taken by the United States of America to ensure the respect of the right to reparation for the victims  and also the Committee is further concerned that detention in other locations, such as Afghanistan and Iraq, is reviewed by mechanisms providing even fewer guarantee. Recommendations of the Committee Against TortureThe Committee Against Torture (CAT) voiced its concerned upon reliable reports of acts of torture or cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment committed by certain members of the United States of America’s military or civilian personnel in Afghanistan and Iraq.  It is also concerned that the investigation and prosecution of many of these cases, including some resulting in the death of detainees, have led to lenient sentences, including of an administrative nature or less than one US imprisonment. Clearly, the United States of America has explicitly and systematically violated international standards regarding human treatment of prisoners which led to the objection raised by international organizations inter alia Human Rights Committee and Committee Against Torture.  ۳٫ Guantánamo Bay isolated torture camp Since 2002 Guantánamo Bay Camp  has served as a military prison and interrogation camp and ultimately held more than 775 detainees from forty –four countries and mostly ,the people suspected by the U.S. government of being al-Qaeda and Taliban operatives ; moreover, the use of Guantánamo Bay as a military prison has drawn fire from human rights organizations and other critics, who cite reports that detainees have been tortured or otherwise poorly treated. Camp’s conditions Physical and mental conditions for detainees at Guantanamo do not meet basic rules and standards of international human rights and prisoners are held in small mesh-sided cells with little privacy, and lights are kept on day and night. Detainees are kept in isolation most of the day, are blindfolded when moving into Camp Delta and from place to place within the camp, and forbidden to talk in groups of more than three. There have been serious allegations of torture, including sleep deprivation, the use of so-called truth drugs, beatings, locking in confined and cold cells, and being forced to maintain uncomfortable postures. Based on court filings made public in January 2007, FBI agents reported that detainees at Guantanamo Bay were chained in a fetal position to the floor for at least 18 hours, urinating and defecating on themselves; subjected to extremes of temperature; gagged with duct tape; held in stress positions while shackled; and subjected to loud music and flashing lights.  Besides that forced feeding accusations by hunger-striking detainees began around the beginning of Autumn, 2005 and detainees said large feeding tubes were forcibly shoved up their noses and down into their stomachs, with guards using the same tubes from one patient to another. The detainees say no sedatives were provided during these procedures, which they allege took place in front of U.S. physicians, including the head of the prison hospital.  Moreover, from 2002 to 2006 there have been several hunger strikes at Guantánamo Bay, with up to 200 participants according to some reports. Numerous participants were being force-fed through a feeding tube when their health and lives became in danger.  Violation of international lawIgnoring of applying the Geneva Conventions broadly, U.S. then Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld labeled the first detainees to arrive at Guantánamo on January 11, 2002 as “unlawful combatants,” automatically denying them possible status as prisoners of war (POWs).  On February 7, 2002, in the face of growing international criticism, US then president announced that the U.S. government would apply the “principles of the Third Geneva Convention” to captured members of the Taliban, but would not consider any of them to be POWs because, in the U.S. view, they did not meet the requirements of an armed force under that Convention.UN for closure of Guantanamo Since January 2002, the five mandate holders of special procedures of the Commission on Human Rights have been following the situation of detainees held at the United States Naval Base at Guantánamo Bay. In June 2004, they decided to continue this task as a group because the situation falls under the scope of each of the mandates. The mandate holders considered that they can better discharge their reporting obligations to the Commission by submitting one joint report on this subject rather than five individual reports. In the absence of assurances from the Government that it would comply with the terms of reference, the mandate holders decided on 18 November 2005 to cancel the visit. Moreover, the report is therefore based on the replies of the Government to a questionnaire concerning detention at Guantánamo Bay submitted by the mandate holders, interviews conducted by the mandate holders with former detainees currently residing or detained in France, Spain and the United Kingdom and responses from lawyers acting on behalf of some Guantánamo Bay detainees to questionnaires submitted by the mandate holders.Finally, the report ends by the following Conclusions and Recommendations:A.Conclusions• The executive branch of the United States Government operates as judge, prosecutor and defense counsel of the Guantánamo Bay detainees: this constitutes serious violations of various guarantees of the right to a fair trial before an independent tribunal as provided for by article 14 of the ICCPR.• Attempts by the United States Administration to redefine “torture” in the framework of the struggle against terrorism in order to allow certain interrogation techniques that would not be permitted under the internationally accepted definition of torture are of utmost concern….• The interrogation techniques authorized by the Department of Defense, particularly if used simultaneously, amount to degrading treatment in violation of article 7 of ICCPR and article 16 of the Convention against Torture….• The excessive violence used in many cases during transportation, in operations by the Initial Reaction Forces and force-feeding of detainees on hunger strike must be assessed as amounting to torture as defined in article 1 of the Convention against Torture.• The practice of rendition of persons to countries where there is a substantial risk of torture… is contrary to article 3 of the Convention against Torture and Article 7 of ICCPR.
• The lack of any impartial investigation into allegations of torture and ill-treatment and the resulting impunity of the perpetrators amount to a violation of articles 12 and 13 of the Convention against Torture. • There are reliable indications that, in different circumstances, persons detained in the Guantánamo Bay detention facilities have been victims of violations of the right to freedom of religion or belief, contrary to article 18 of ICCPR and the 1981 Declaration…. • The treatment of the detainees and the conditions of their confinement has led to prolonged hunger strikes. The force-feeding of competent detainees violates the right to health as well as the ethical duties of any health professionals who may be involved.
Result:The United States Government should close the Guantánamo Bay detention facilities without further delay.Section II:Islamophobia in the United States
Islamophobia is the most outstanding feature of the U.S domestic and foreign policy worldwide. The U.S occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan and NATO attacks in those countries especially against innocent and defendless Muslim population, hostility and injustice towards Palestinian people and  branding the Palestinian freedom fighters as terrorists, denouncing Muslims and Arabs and promoting the culture of hatred against Islam represent some manifestations of Islamophobia  pursued by the government of the United States. The pursuance of Islamophobia as a pattern in domestic and foreign policy by the U.S government has contributed immensely to rapid growth of Islamophobic attitudes among Christian and Jewish religious and secular extremists which, in turn led to the emergence of symptoms of bias against Muslims and spread of hate speech and different forms of defamation against Islam and even Christianity and Judaism. Provoked and nurtured by the United States government Islamophobic policies, the “Corporate Media” has, for USears, engaged in demonizing Islamic religion and spreading hatred against Muslims around the world. Although some Media in the western and non-western communities consider themselves as independent in expressing their worldview and different opinions about Muslims, however it is frequently and widely accepted by the commentators that the global Anti- Islamic climate created in the aftermath of 9/11 by the government of the United States has brought about conducive conditions for a world wide organized and systematic Islamophobia and defamation of Islam within the Media. In addition, some circles within film industries in the west particularly in the United States has enhanced and spread anti Arab and anti Muslim sentiments around the globe. It is under these circumstances that Islamophobia grows within the common people in some western societies and strengthened by some laws promoting “restrictive measures” against Muslims. In the aftermath of September 11, 2001 attacks, Muslims in the United States of America became victims of a severe wave of backlash violence, and crimes such as murder, beatings, arson, unreasonable arrest, harassment, attacks on mosques, shootings, vehicular assaults and verbal threats. To world dismay, violence was directed at people shared or were perceived as sharing the national background or religion of the hijackers and Al-Qaeda members who deemed responsible for attacking the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. It should be mentioned as well that violence against Arabs and Muslims, in the United States society, has not been unprecedented, USet the hate crimes that followed the September 11 attacks were unique in their severity and extent. Hatred acts against Muslims & MosquesQuran burning In the aftermath of September 11, burning of the holy Quran comes of particular sensitivity. The U.S. military confirmed five cases of U.S. personnel mishandling the Muslim holy book at the prison at Guantanamo Bay, acknowledging that soldiers and interrogators exerted certain discourteous manner against holy Quran which readers for further study are duly referred to the provided source. However, inside the country various cases of holy Quran burning have been reported too.[ ] [ ] The most recent incident was the call from a priest to celebrate “Burning Quran day” on the anniversary of the 9/11.Assault on Islam, Muslims and Mosques  Baptist Press reports that Daniel Scot from Brisbane Assemblies of God ministers, received the Kairos Journal Award for his refusal to “compromise truth for fear of jail”      (Anti Islamic believes), the award is given annually to individuals who demonstrate faithfulness to Scripture and pastoral courage; on the other hand, it also honors those who respond to what the journal calls a ‘kairos moment’ – a moment that calls for timely Christian action. In this regard, it is also cited that Americans view their Muslim neighbors as an alien outside the limits of American life and history. While other minorities such as African-Americans, Hispanics and native Americans are considered as people living within the boundaries of the present United States geographical boundaries since the earliest days of the nation USet Muslims are perceived to have had no part in the American experience. Moreover, there are numerous cases reported by the media that indicate, violation against mosques has become routine in the USA society in the aftermath of September11, inter alia vandalizing of a Detroit located mosque in January 2007 , fire at the National Islamic Association mosque in Newark , vandalism targeted an Islamic school at Kenner and the nearby home of a Pakistani man , shots fired into Maryland Mosque in April2006, vandalism of Ahlul-Beyt Mosque of Pomona and firing mosque of Adelantoin to mention a few.

Section III: Police brutality Police abuse remains one of the most serious and divisive human rights violations in the United States.  About 400 innocent people shot and killed by the police each USear in the United States. The excessive use of force by police officers, including unjustified shootings, severe beatings and rough treatment persists because overwhelming barriers to accountability has made it possible for US officers who commit human rights violations to escape due punishment and often to repeat their offenses. In this regard, even the most flagrant violations of justice go unpunished. Regrettably, in the lesser cases, the policemen are actually rewarded for their evil! To shed more light on the issue some of the aspects of US police brutalities are presented as follows:

The Taser related deaths pass the 150 markWith regard to police brutality, in the US 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively 3, 13, 17, 48and 61 Taser related deaths have been recorded. Since June 2001,152 people died in the USA after being shocked by a taser. It is note worthy citing that, Amnesty International has already released a report (in November 2004) calling for a suspension on the use and transfer of these weapons. In fact Amnesty International raised its concerns that the number of taser-related deaths had been rising each USear in the Unites states of America. Moreover, of the 152 taser related deaths documented by Amnesty International, most of those who died in custody were unarmed and were not posing a serious threat to police officers or members of the public. The said report reveals that they were generally subjected to repeated or prolonged shocks; the suspects were suffering from health problems, such as heart conditions or mental illnesses, or were under the influence of drugs; adding that, use of the taser was often accompanied by the use of restraints and/or chemical incapacitate sprays.
UN against US police brutality With regard to the US police brutality, many objections have been voiced inter alia UN Human Rights Committee which can be referred to as follows:Concerning racial profiling and police abuse, according to figures published by the United States Bureau of Justice in April 2005, 11.4 percent of Hispanics and 12.4 percent of African American respondents to a survey reported a search during a traffic stop, compared with only 3.5 percent of whites.  While only 1.1 percent of whites had reported the use or threat of use of force following contact with police, however figures for African-Americans was 3.5 percent and for Hispanics 2.5  percent. Moreover, fourteen per cent of persons who had experienced the use of force by the police reported that they had sustained injuries as a result, and less than 20 per cent of those who considered that the police had acted improperly had filed a complaint or lawsuit against the authorities. Regrettably, it should be mentioned that the US police brutality and excessive use of force by its law enforcement officials constitute constant and systematic trend .In this regard, the reports of Human Rights Committee about violations of the provisions of the Covenant of the Civil and Political Rights ( CCPR) along side other numerous documents presented by international organizations  inter alia Amnesty International indicates willful negligence of the United States government officials which requires urgent attention .

Section IV:Execution of mentally ill peopleExecution of mentally ill people in the USA is one of the main issues under the scrutiny and criticisms of national and international human rights advocates. Since 1977 till the end of December 2005, Amnesty International has recorded that more than 1000 men and women had been put to death in the United States of America. Dozens of these people had histories of serious mental impairment, either from before the crimes for which they were sentenced to death, or at the time of their execution. Moreover, some suffered either from mental retardation or mental illness or diagnosed with both. General trendAmnesty International has reported that by the end of December 2005, more than 1,000 men and women had been put to death in the United States of America (since executions resumed there in 1977) of whom 100 has had mental illness.
Section V:Violation of human rights in prisons
According to statistics released by the Federal Bureau of Justice Statistics (Prisoners in 2005), the number of US residents behind bars has now reached more than 2.3 million and the rate of incarceration has risen to 491 sentenced inmates per 100,000 US residents, up from 411 a decade ago. Moreover, four states – Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi and Oklahoma – have incarceration rates of more than 750 per 100,000, with Louisiana soaring above all other states with the astonishing rate of 797. UN against bad situation of US prisons The Human Rights Committee as the treaty body of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, in its different reports has criticized the existing situation of the prisons in the USA. At present report we touch upon some of these considerations.Criticism on human experiments in the US prisons:   Human Rights Committee (HRC) has noticed that the conduct of non-therapeutic research on prisoners, even with their consent, was questionable since prisoners belonged to a vulnerable category and might give their consent in the hope of some unspecified advantage in the future.  Paragraph 145 of the report of HRC seemed to indicate that all kinds of medical or pharmaceutical experimentation involving prisoners were prohibited at the federal level.  Yet the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) apparently allowed tests on prisoners.  Moreover, according to paragraph 146, HHS regulations protecting prisoners’ rights and welfare were applicable to 90 percent of federally conducted research and what about the remaining 10 percent and non-federally-conducted research. Consideration on high number of prisonersThe HRC has found as well that the United States had incarcerated some 2,270,000 people out of a population of approximately 280 million, which was equivalent to 757 per 100,000 members of the population, a ratio that was between 500 and 1,000 percent higher than for any other developed country and it is a matter of question why such high levels of incarceration were necessary. Criticism on deprivation of voting in the US prisonsBased on some different reports, in many states, those convicted of felony  offenses are banned from voting. These laws have a much greater effect on minorities, especially African Americans, as they are more likely to be convicted of felonies. In some United States cities, for example, half of all black men cannot vote, and in states such as Florida and Alabama, as many as a third of black men cannot vote. For this reason, the constitutionality of this practice is likely to be tested in the United States Supreme Court in due course. Criminals could be deprived of the vote under the Covenant while they were incarcerated, but it was far from clear that a blanket prohibition on voting for convicted felons who were no longer deprived of their liberty was not a breach of article 25.The fact that former felons were not included in the list of prohibited characteristics for discrimination in article 2 was not a cogent argument since the list omitted a very large number of categories that were nevertheless eligible for protection against discrimination. The Human Rights Committee is concerned that about five million citizens cannot vote due to a felony conviction, and that this practice has significant racial implications.  The Human Rights Committee also notes with concern that the recommendation made in 2001 by the National Commission on Federal Election Reform that all states restore voting rights to citizens who have fully served their sentences has not been endorsed by all states.  The Committee is of the view that general deprivation of the right to vote for persons who have received a felony conviction, and in particular those who are no longer deprived of liberty, do not meet the requirements of articles 25 of 26 of the Covenant, nor serves the rehabilitation goals of article 10 (3).Moreover, the United States of America should adopt appropriate measures to ensure that states restore voting rights to citizens who have fully served their sentences and those who have been released on parole.  The Committee also recommends that the US review regulations relating to deprivation of votes for felony conviction to ensure that they always meet the reasonableness test of article 25 and should also assess the extent to which such regulations disproportionately impact on the rights of minority groups and provide the Committee with detailed information in this regard.[ ][ ] Criticism on maximum security prisons The Human Rights Committee has reiterated its concern that conditions in some maximum security prisons are incompatible with the obligation contained in article 10 (1) of the Covenant to treat detainees with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.  It is particularly concerned by the practice in some such institutions to hold detainees in prolonged cellular confinement, and to allow them out-of-cell recreation for only five hours per week, in general conditions of strict regimentation in a depersonalized environment.  It is also concerned that such treatment cannot be reconciled with the requirement in article 10 (3) that the penitentiary system shall comprise treatment the essential aim of which shall be the reformation and social rehabilitation of prisoners.  It also expresses concern about the reported high numbers of severely mentally ill persons in these prisons, as well as in regular in U.S. jails. Thus the United States of America should scrutinize conditions of detention in prisons, in particular in maximum security prisons, with a view to guaranteeing that persons deprived of their liberty be treated in accordance with the requirements of article 10 of the Covenant and the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners. Criticism on the poor conditions of prisons
“Given the very poor conditions in which prisoners under sentence of death were reported to live and their invariably long stay on death row, it would be useful to know whether the reporting State planned to take measures to improve the conditions”.
The United States of America has systematically violated the international norms and standards and in this regard the USouth and adult, men and women all have suffered from the brutal inhuman treatment of the US officials toward prisoners.

Section VI:Prisoners abuses in secret prisons
Apparently, the idea of holding terrorists outside the U.S. legal system was not under consideration before Sept. 11, 2001.Howerever, since then, the United States has established a network of secret detention facilities around the world in order to detain thousands of individuals captured in the war on terrorism. The official secrecy surrounding U.S. practices has made conditions ripe for illegality and abuse.  Moreover,  both United States citizens and foreign nationals are occasionally captured (and at times claimed to be abducted) outside of the United States and transferred to secret US administered detention facilities, sometimes being held incommunicado for periods of months or USears, a process known as extraordinary rendition .
Locations of secret prisonsIt is cited  that  overseas detention facilities are known to be or to have been maintained at least in Thailand, the Philippines, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Cyprus, Cuba, Diego Garcia, and unspecified South Pacific island nation(s). In addition, individuals are suspected to be or to have been held in temporary or permanent US controlled facilities in Indonesia,  Elsalvador, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Libya, Israel, Denmark, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Hungary, Germany, and Scotland.  Extraordinary renditionExtraordinary rendition is an American extra-judicial procedure which involves the sending of untried criminal suspects, suspected terrorists or alleged supporters of groups which the US Government considers to be terrorist organizations, to countries other than the United States for imprisonment and interrogation. Critics have accused the CIA of rendering suspects to other countries in order to avoid US laws prescribing due process and prohibiting torture, even though many of those countries have, like the US, signed or ratified the United Nations Convention Against Torture and  Critics have called this practice “torture by proxy” or “torture flights”.
UN against secret detentionThe HRC against secret detention facilitiesThe Human Rights Committee, too, raised its concern that the United States of America has seen fit to engage in the practice of detaining people secretly and in secret places for months, without keeping the International Committee of the Red Cross informed.  In such cases, the rights of the families of the detainees are also being violated. The Human Rights Committee is also concerned that, even when such persons may have their detention acknowledged, they have been held incommunicado for months.  The CAT’s  criticism against secret detention facilities“The Committee (CAT) is concerned by allegations that the State party has established secret detention facilities, which are not accessible to the International Committee of the Red Cross.  Detainees are allegedly deprived of fundamental legal safeguards, including an oversight mechanism in regard to their treatment and review procedures with respect to their detention.
Section VII: Violation of women and children’s rightsViolation of women’s rightsViolations of women’s rights in the United States include discrimination based on sex, particularly employment discrimination, sexual abuse, domestic violence, battering and etc.Women and children are also suffering a horrifying range of human rights violations in prisons across the United States of America. Besides, US police brutality toward women and children is among other challenges which women and Children in the USA are entangling.The following is some selected accounts of violation of women’s rights in the United States requiring urgent attention by the international community.
Violence against women in prisonRape and other human rights abuses such as Shackling of Pregnant Women and ill treatment in the US prisons have occurred partly due to the fact that guards know that they will probably never be disciplined and in many cases the suffering of women prisoners is compounded because they are too afraid to speak out for fear of reprisals. For instance, following the investigation of prisons in Michigan, the Justice Department said violations of women’s rights go unreported because of the “widespread fear of retaliation and vulnerability felt by these women” .It is observed by Amnesty international as well that a Washington DC court described the policies and procedures of the District prison authorities for dealing with sexual misconduct as “of little value because [they] address the problems of sexual harassment of women prisoners with no staff training, inconsistent reporting practices, cursory investigations and timid sanctions.” The court said prison officials had coerced women prisoners and staff into silence, and had insulated themselves from scrutiny.  The mechanisms to prevent these human rights abuses and to provide redress are clearly inadequate. US prison standards are deficient and few states have effective, independent bodies to monitor how inmates are treated. As a result, hidden behind the prison walls, untold numbers of women continue to suffer human rights abuses at the hands of government authorities.  Moreover, Amnesty International believes that the nature and extent of sexual abuse of female inmates by male staff in US jails and prisons, and the harm that sexual abuse causes, warrants special focus on the issue. More importantly, legislation, regulations, policies and practices must reflect a commitment to protect inmates against such abuse of power.  In the same report, Amnesty International further urges federal state and local governments and authorities to take urgent action to ensure that laws, regulations, policies and practices for which they are responsible rigorously conform to international standards and respect the human rights of women deprived of their liberty. Violation of children’s rights
Modern slaveryOther abuses that seriously threaten life in the USA include the sale of children, child prostitution, child pornography, the exploitation of child labor, the sexual mutilation of female children and other human exploitation in prostitution…. In the USA, x-rated movies, videos, magazines, internet sites, and adult entertainment enterprises constitute a multi-billion dollar annual trade.  For instance, researchers from the University of California and Berkeley’s Human Rights Center on forced labor in the United States have revealed, in disturbing detail, how individuals in communities across the country are forced through threats or violence to work in deplorable conditions for little or no pay.Laurel Fletcher a researcher at the Human Rights Center and professor at UC Berkeley’s law school has stated that “The most shocking aspect of the said report is that modern-day slavery still exists,” Moreover, Kevin Bales, president of Free the Slaves has also expressed that “Slavery is a problem the public thinks we solved long ago, but, in fact, it’s alive and well, it has simply taken on a new form. And the form of slavery will continue to change. “It is important to remember that slavery is a crime and that criminals are always looking for new ways to exploit people” .
Abuse of children’s life right (Medical experiments)Human experimentation involves medical tests performed on human beings. It is widely noticed that  , with these sorts of experiments, the USA has violated the right of many children inside and outside of the country. UN criticizes   The Human Rights Committee as the treaty body of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights has criticized the existing violence and discriminations against women and children in the USA.  Concern on discrimination on the ground of sexThe Committee regrets that many federal laws that address sex-discrimination are limited in scope and restricted in implementation.  The Committee is especially concerned about the reported persistence of employment discrimination against women.  And the United States of America should take all steps necessary, including at state level, to ensure the equality of women before the law and equal protection of the law, as well as effective protection against discrimination on the ground of sex, in particular in the area of employment.
Concern on police brutality and violence against women  The Human Rights Committee has reiterated its concern about reports of police brutality and excessive use of force by law enforcement officials and is concerned about information according to which police have used tasers against unruly schoolchildren; mentally disabled or intoxicated individuals involved in disturbed but non-life-threatening behavior; elderly people; pregnant women… .
Concern on sexual abuse against womenThe Human Rights Committee while welcoming the adoption of the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 regrets that the United States of America has not implemented its previous recommendation that legislation allowing male officers access to women’s quarters should be amended to provide at least that they will always be accompanied by women officers. HRC has also expressed its concern about the shackling of detained women during childbirth. Furthermore, the Committee has reiterated its recommendation that male officers should not be granted access to women’s quarters, or at least be accompanied by women officers.   The Committee also recommends the State party to prohibit the shackling of detained women during childbirth.
Concern on non-ratification of CRCIt is worth mentioning that the United States of America was one of the only two States that have failed to ratify the Convention which would be considered as an unfortunate example of exceptionalism and an impediment to the realization of universality of children rights.

References:

E/CN.4/2006/6 and Add.1.

E/CN.4/2006/56.

E/CN.4/2006/7.

En.wikipedia.org./wiki.

www.hrw.org

The Rule of Law and the Rules of War”, New York Times (op-ed piece), May 15, 2004.

www.hrw.org.

United Nations Convention Against Torture, (Article 1).

History News Network,www.hnn.us/articles/32497.html.

The ICRC report 2003,3.2,Article27.

Adam Zagorm, The Abu Ghraib Scandal USou don’t know,   www.time.com/ time/archive preview/0,10987,1025139,00.

Abu Ghraib’s legacy for military medicine Health and Human Rights, Steven H. Miles.

Hrw.org/reports/2004/usa0604/4.

Hrw.org/reports/2004/afganistan0304.

Dana Priest and Barton Gellman, “U.S. decries abuse but defends interrogations,” Washington Post, December 26, 2002.

ICRC,www.CICR.org/eng/appeals,31.12.2006.

En.wikipedia.org/wiki/bagram-torture and prisons.

Douglas Jehl and Andrea Elliott, “Cuba base sent its interrogators to Iraqi prison, New York Times, May 29, 2004.

CCPR/C/USA/CO/3/Rev.1,18 December 2006 ,Article 14.

Ibid,18

۲۵ wikipedia , the free encyclopedia , Guantanamo Bay Detainment Camp , P.8.

۲۶ Mark Tran “FBI files detail Guantanamo torture tactics” , Guardian, January 3, 2007.

۲۷ Guantanamo  hunger strikes say U.S. misuses feeding tubes, Xinhua.net (October 21,2005).

۲۸ Eight More Guantanamo Detainees Released or Transferred, International Information Program ,July20, 2005.

۴۴ By Jerry Markon,Washington Post Staff Writer,Friday, June 17, 2005; Page B05

۴۵ Roanoke.com,June16.2005

۴۶ Baptist Press, 31 January 2007,www.bpnews.net/bpnews.asp

۴۷ By JAMES H. HUTSON May 2002,http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0205/tolerance.html

۴۸  www.wzzm13.com/news/local/grmetro,  WZZM, 23 January 2007

۴۹  www.belief net.com/story /210/23 January 2007

۵۰ http://www.nola.com/newsTuesday, March 07, 2006,By Mary Swerczek

۵۱ http://www2.sbsun.com/news/ci_3026285

Wikipedia free encyclopedia, ,www.wikipedia.org.

Police Massachusetts Brutality- www.massbrutality.org/incident, from CBSNews.com

Amnesty International USA February 2006,Amnestyusa.org/countries/uas

Amnesty International USA- www.amnestyusa.org,2005

Ibid

Human Rights Watch , hrw.org/englsh/docs/ December 1, 2006

CCPR/C/SR2380,27July2006 , Article75

Ibid, Article76

The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. It is principally used in criminal law in the United States legal system

En.wikipedia.org/wiki/us prisons

CCPR/C/USA/CO/3/Rev.1,18 December 2006,Article 32

CCPR/C/USA/CO/3/Rev.1,18 December 2006, Article35

CCPR/C/USA/CO/3/Rev.1,18 December 2006,Article32

CCPR/C/SR2380,27July2006 , Article88

Human Rights First,www.human rights first.org,Ending Secret Detentions, Debra Pealstein, June2004

Ibid.

Ibid. Extraordinary rendition Ibid. Extraordinary rendition

۸۹ Information Memorandom II on the alleged secret detentions in Couacil of Europe state, reported by Dick Marty, January 22, 2006.

The Human Rights Committee is the treaty body of the International Covenant on Political and Civil Rights.

The Committee Against Torture

Amnesty International Canada  www.amnesty.ca/USA/woman

Ibid

Ibid

www.amnestyusa.org/w2omen/custody 2006

Ibid

www.freeworldacademy.com/globalleader/slavary.htm

Hidden Slaves: Forced Labor in the United States, www.berkeley.edu/news, sep.2003 the report which covers the period of 1998 to 2003, was conducted by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley’s Human Rights Center and the Washington D.C.-based, anti-slavery group Free the Slaves.

Alliance for Human Research Protection. “‘Monster Experiment’ Taught Orphans to Stutter.”. June 11, 2001.

Barker, Allen. “The Cold War Experiments.” Mind Control.

Berdon, Victoria. “Codes of Medical and Human Experimentation Ethics.” The Least of My Brothers.

Brinker, Wendy. “James Marion Sims: Father Butcher.” Seed Show.

Burton Report. “Human Experimentation, Plutonium and Col. Stafford Warren”.

CCPR/C/USA/CO/3/Rev.1,18 December 2006,Article 28.

Ibid., Article30.

CCPR/C/USA/CO/3/Rev.1,18 December 2006,Article 33

CCPR/C/SR2380,27July2006 Article80.


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